Enter your filing status, income, deductions and credits and we will estimate your total taxes. Based on your projected tax withholding for the year, we can also estimate your tax refund or amount you may owe the IRS. Please note this calculator is for the 2023 tax year which is due by April 15, 2024. We offer calculators for the tax years 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 & 2023.
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Most individuals and businesses in the United States are obligated to pay taxes and file tax forms to the Federal government. To prove you pay your fair share, you’re required to file a tax return annually to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Filing taxes are usually done between the last week of January to April 15. The period when you can send your tax return is called the tax season.
The tax-filing process is a way for the government to track how much income you’ve earned, along with how much tax you’re supposed to pay based on your income. It also monitors how much you actually paid, and if you’ve paid insufficient taxes. As people pay taxes throughout the year, many workers have tax money directly withheld from their paychecks.
If you overpaid, like most taxpayers do, the government gives it back to you as a refund. But if you underpaid, you must prioritize paying the needed amount. Tax refunds can be substantial, which can help you save and pay for important expenses. Overall, it’s crucial to file your taxes properly and take advantage of standard tax deductions.
Though millions of Americans file taxes each year, it doesn’t make the process easy. When you sit down to review your tax forms, you’re bound to get perplexed. Besides actually paying taxes, going through the trouble of arranging your tax file can be overwhelming. This is especially true if your finances are more complex, or is not as straightforward as other workers or business owners.
In this article, we’ll guide you through the most common tax form taxpayers use, which is the 1040 form. The 1040 tax form is what people use to file their personal and family tax return. It helps you compute how much you earned and guides you through income adjustments you need to make.
We’ll explain the following aspects of taxes as they relate to the 1040 form:
When you first start working, your employer usually asks you to fill-out a W-4 tax form. The information you write in the W-4 tax form determines how much taxes are withheld from your salary. It includes pertinent personal information, such as whether you’re single or married, if you have dependents, and how much you’re expected to earn over the year.
Your filing status is an important basis for calculating your taxable income. This is determined by your family situation and your marital status. Taxpayers may fall into five types of filing status: single, married filing jointly, married filing separately, head of household, and a qualified widower with a dependent child or children. If you are eligible for more than one filing status, the IRS tax filing interview selects the result with the lowest tax amount.
Tax brackets specify your required tax rate based on your income level. In the U.S., the government uses a progressive tax system where the rate increases as your income grows. As a result, people with higher incomes fall into brackets with high tax rates. Meanwhile, lower income earners fall into brackets with low tax rates.
The following table shows 2023 filing status and tax rates:
|Tax Rate||Married Filing Jointly or Qualified Widow(er)||Single||Head of Household||Married Filing Separately|
|10%||$0 - $22,000||$0 - $11,000||$0 - $15,700||$0 - $11,000|
|12%||$22,000 - $89,450||$11,000 - $44,725||$15,700 - $59,850||$11,000 - $44,725|
|22%||$89,450 - $190,750||$44,725 - $95,375||$59,850 - $95,350||$44,725 - $95,375|
|24%||$190,750 - $364,200||$95,375 - $182,100||$95,350 - $182,100||$95,350 - $182,100|
|32%||$364,200 - $462,500||$182,100 - $231,250||$182,100 - $231,250||$182,100 - $231,250|
|35%||$462,500 - $693,750||$231,250 - $578,125||$231,250 - $578,125||$231,250 - $346,875|
|37%||Over $693,750||Over $578,125||Over $578,125||Over $346,875|
The IRS recommends updating your W-4 form every time you experience major life changes that impact your tax obligations. This includes events such as marriage, divorce, and the birth of a child. You should also update it whenever you receive unexpected sources of income.
Each year, employers send withheld taxes to the IRS. The IRS then records and monitors how much each individual, company, and organization has paid in taxes. For self-employed individuals or those who don’t have a company that withholds taxes for them, you’re still required to withhold taxes from your salary. You can do this by filing estimated tax payments. Estimated tax payments are usually paid by sole proprietors, partners, and S corporation shareholders if they expect to owe taxes worth $1,000 and above when their return is filed.
The above rates are separate from Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) taxes which fund Social Security and Medicare. Employers and workers typically pay half of the 12.4% Social Security and 1.45% Medicare benefit each, for a total of 15.3%.
Individuals who are self-employed pay self-employment taxes. This means they cover both halves of the tax.
For 2023, the FICA limit is on the first $160,200 of income. Note that this limit is adjusted annually according to changes in the average wage index.
“The OASDI tax rate for wages paid in 2023 is set by statute at 6.2 percent for employees and employers, each. Thus, an individual with wages equal to or larger than $160,200 would contribute $9,932.40 to the OASDI program in 2023, and his or her employer would contribute the same amount. The OASDI tax rate for self-employment income in 2023 is 12.4 percent.… Tax rates under the [Medicare] HI program are 1.45 percent for employees and employers, each, and 2.90 percent for self-employed persons.”
Gains on asset sales which are held for at least a year are taxed at lower rates than ordinary income. In the U.S., purchasing property comes with certain tax advantages. When you pay interest on mortgage payments, you can claim a deduction in your tax returns.
While income from rent is not tax deductible, owning real estate in the long-term is subject to lower capital gains taxes. When you hold on to your asset longer, you give it time to increase in value and lower its tax burden. Short-term capital gains, in contrast, have higher rates than long-term capital gains which are held for a year or more.
The following table shows 2023 long-term capital gains tax rates for different tax filing statuses:
|Tax Rate||Married Filing Jointly or Qualified Widow(er)||Single||Head of Household||Married Filing Separately|
|0%||$0 - $89,250||$0 - $44,625||$0 - $59,750||$0 - $44,625|
|15%||$89,250 - $553,850||$44,625 - $492,300||$59,750 - $523,050||$44,625 - $276,900|
|20%||Over $553,850||Over $492,300||Over $523,050||Over $276,900|
There are only three brackets for long-term capitals gains tax. These are taxed at graduated thresholds set at 0%, 15%, and 20%. Most taxpayers who declare long-term capital gains are usually at the 15% threshold or below.
You earn capital gains when you sell a capital asset for more than what you paid for. Different capital assets include real estate, stocks and bonds. Taxes you pay on capital gains are determined by how long you keep the property before you sell it. Long-term capital gains are obtained from assets that are held for a year or beyond.
When the new year comes around, people get ready for tax filing. Between late January to early February, you will likely receive a W-2 from in the mail from your employer. Make sure to hold on to this form. The W-2 form details all the wages you earned and taxes withheld throughout the year. You’ll need this document in filing your taxes moving forward.
The W-2 form contains all the information you must include in your 1040 or 1040EZ tax form. Your tax forms come with organized boxes and instructions as you fill them out. Note that it’s your duty as a working citizen to file your tax return on time. This is mandatory even if you’re not receiving any refunds.
Apart from the W-2 form, there are other tax forms you might need based on your job status. You’ll also need other tax forms to deduct certain types of interest payments.
Individuals who are self-employed or independent contractors usually receive 1099 forms. These forms do not include withholding information because self-employed taxpayers are expected to remit their own taxes throughout the year. Banks and investment companies may also issue 1099 forms if you’ve accumulated interest on income. The following are common types of 1099 forms:
Individuals receive a 1098 form if they’ve made interest payments on a mortgage or a student loan. This basically reports the interest payments and expenses you can deduct. For homeowners, you’ll receive a 1098 mortgage interest statement detailing how much interest you paid throughout the year. If you’re paying for college tuition, you’ll receive a 1098-T or tuition statement form that reports the tuition you paid. Depending on the amount of interest payments for the year, you might be entitled to tax deductions or tax credit.
Next, you must gather all necessary financial information to complete your tax return:
Under the 1040 form, you’ll need to submit additional forms called ‘schedules.’ This depends on the deductions or credits you need to claim, or any additional taxes you need to report. There are 3 main tax schedules:
While your taxes are determined by your income, you don’t pay taxes based on your total earnings. The government allows individuals to deduct a certain amount on their income which is exempted from taxes. The main deduction you make is called the standard deduction.
Standard deduction is the specific dollar amount that lowers your taxable income. The standard deduction for 2021 is $12,550 for single filers, and $25,100 for those married filing jointly. Individual taxpayers are qualified to make standard deductions based on their filing status. You also have the option to itemize deductions, but this only makes sense if your total deductions exceed the assigned threshold.
For a complete list of 2023 Federal income tax standard deductions, refer to the table below.
|Filing Status||Standard Deduction|
|Married Filing Separately||$13,850|
|Married Filing Jointly||$27,700|
|Head of Household||$20,800|
Tax deductions are beneficial in reducing your taxed income. You can deduct money from the amount you owe or the amount you should have paid by claiming authorized deductions from your tax bill. It’s not even a secret. It’s part of the tax-filing process, and the IRS actually publishes a list of tax deductions and credits on their website.
There are certain deductions that are more common than others. The tax code is written in such a way that some deductions just apply to more individuals. Common tax deductions you should be on the lookout for are the following:
If any of the above apply, it’s easy to take some deductions from the taxes that you have to pay. With tax deductions, you want to make sure you’re maximizing how much you can get from tax cuts on your bill.
Taxpayers can itemize deductions if they’ve spent more than the standard deduction amount for the year. But for the most part, only about 10% of U.S. taxpayers can provide itemized deductions on their tax return. The following list shows different expenses that can be written as itemized deductions:
Tax deductions and credits both reduce your tax bill by adjusting your income. While these might seem similar, the difference is in which part of the tax filing process they are applied to.
Tax deduction reduces your taxable income, which essentially impacts the tax rate used to compute the taxes you owe. Getting a tax deduction might result in a larger refund because your tax rate is reduced. For instance, suppose you earned $54,000 in total income and you qualified for $10,000 in deductions. Your taxable income for that year will be reduced to $44,000 instead of $54,000. If your status is single during the 2023 tax year, your marginal tax rate will be reduced from 22% to 12%.
Deductions are often categorized into two types: above-the-line deductions and below-the-line deductions. The line this refers to is your adjusted gross income (AGI). AGI is determined by taking above-the-line deductions. Once you find your AGI, you can also determine if you’re eligible for below-the-line deductions.
Tax credits, on the other hand, lowers how much you owe in taxes. The annual income tax charged to you is called your tax liability or tax bill. Tax credits basically reduce your tax bill, which immediately lowers the amount you need to pay in taxes. Tax credits can be better than deductions because they directly lower the amount of taxes you owe. There are two main types of tax credits: refundable and nonrefundable tax credits.
In 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed by former President Trump. It changed the overall tax bracket rate while increasing the standard deduction. These reforms to itemized deductions simplified individual tax requirements for millions of households. Rather than itemizing various deductions, which increases compliance costs, many taxpayers benefited from taking the expanded standard deduction. But after December 31, 2025, if the Congress permits it, most changes to the individual tax code will revert to pre-TCJA standards.
In addition, the 2017 TCJA enacted 3 major changes which had a significant impact on homeowners:
Mortgage Interest Deductibility Limit: In the past, homeowners could deduct interest paid on up to $1,000,000 of mortgage debt, specifically for those who are married and filing jointly. After the TCJA, the new limit was lowered to $750,000, though homeowners who are refinancing an existing mortgage may still qualify for the old limit. For single taxpayers and those who are married and filing individually, the cap is now $375,000, which was $750,000 in pre-TCJA years.
Home Equity Interest Deductibility: In the past, second mortgage interest was deductible. After the TCJA, interest paid on HELOCs and home equity loans are no longer deductible, except for one condition. The loan proceeds must be used to build or substantially improve the homeowner’s dwelling.
SALT Limit: High-income filers who own homes in expensive coastal areas will find their state and local tax deductions have been limited significantly, to a cap of $10,000 per year.
As mentioned above, in 2017 President Trump pushed through tax cuts which had a significant impact on taxpayers. While taxes were reduced, Federal spending never was, so the national debt kept growing. By 2020, the COVID-19 crisis blew up the global economy and gave the United States wartime level deficits and national debts as lockdowns destroyed employment prospects and kicked in social safety net spending programs.
The World Economic Forum published a book titled COVID-19: The Great Reset.
In a tax plan outlined by President Biden before the 2020 election, he announced possible policies that would increase taxes for individuals with income over $400,000. However, this change has not been enacted, and has rougly 0% chance of passing given that it did not pass when Democrats had control of Congress and the Republicans narrowly took the House of Representitives in the 2022 midterm elections. The primary changes for year 2023 over 2022 are simply inflation adjustments.
For 2023, refer to the following lifetime learning credit income limits:
|Filing Status||Max. Income for Full Credit||Max. Income for Partial Credit|
|Married Filing Separately||$80,000||$90,000|
|Married Filing Jointly||$160,000||$180,000|
|Head of Household||$80,000||$90,000|
Comparing the 1040 Form with the 1040EZ
Before the redesigned 1040 form was implemented in 2018, the 1040EZ form was designed for filers with more basic, uncomplicated tax situations. The 1040EZ form lived up to its easy name because it was a shorter and much simpler version of the 1040 form.
But after the 2017 TCJA, a new 1040 consolidated the 1040, 1040A, and 1040EZ forms into a single 1040 form. This is the tax form everyone must use now to file their tax return. However, if you have back taxes from 2017 and earlier, you may still use the 1040EZ form by getting in touch with the IRS.
There are various reasons why people might need to file for extension on taxes. You might do so because you’ll be out of the country when taxes are due. Perhaps you have a complex business partnership, or your partner suddenly fell ill right in time for tax season. In some cases, you might be serving in the military and won’t be back from a combat zone for a while. If you cannot file or pay your taxes when they are due, you should request the IRS for a later due date.
It is up to the discretion of the IRS if they grant extensions on tax payments. The IRS usually will agree to the extension, as long as the taxpayer has a good reason to ask for one. In this respect, those who feel they need a little more time should file the extension using form 4868. It is certainly a much better option than not filing the taxes or not paying at all.
Catching Up on Back Taxes
Unpaid taxes are a very serious issue. If you failed to file your taxes properly or pay the right amount, expect the IRS to know. They will come after you for unpaid taxes—with additional fines, fees, and interest. Don’t be shocked to receive mail stating the amount they claim you owe versus the amount you actually paid.
In extreme cases, the IRS had people living overseas such as John McAfee jailed awaiting extradition. He died in prison. :(
If the IRS claims you underpaid your taxes, you can challenge their claims. There are courts that allow you to question the taxes they say you owe. That being said, if you think the IRS is in fact correct in their estimations, you should certainly prioritize making the payment.
Unpaid taxes from previous years may include penalties. This can accrue daily compound interest until the matter is settled.
A lot of people who receive an IRS bill for unpaid taxes cannot afford to pay in full. These people usually face financial hardships, and would have paid it if they had enough money. With this situation in mind, the IRS allows taxpayers to make a partial payment or a payment plan. Individual taxpayers can use form 9465 to take care of a partial payment setup they made with the IRS. Make sure to diligently make your payments as agreed to remain on the good side of the IRS.
Though doing taxes may be stressful, receiving a tax refund is a great advantage. To obtain your tax refund, it all starts with going back to your employer. As previously mentioned, the information in your W-4 tax form will determine your current tax status. If you’re not aware of this, you should talk to your employer about how your tax filing status is currently set up.
Most employees put either zero dependents or one dependent when they file their tax status. Between the two, the difference in how much taxes are taken out is pretty big. Any person is allowed to claim one dependent. They can get even more dependents on their tax filing if they are married or have children.
The more dependents a person has, the less will be taken out their paychecks for taxes on a weekly basis. On the other hand, if they claim fewer dependents, more taxes will be taken from their salary. But even with overpayments, the money comes back to the taxpayer as a refund.
It all depends on whether you would like to receive that money on your weekly paycheck, or if you’re okay receiving it as a lump sum refund during tax season. Some people prefer to receive it as a large amount so they can save, use the money to pay off debts and important expenses, or fund vacations.
How Long Does It Take to Get a Tax Refund?
A refund is issued typically within six to eight weeks of filing an accurate and complete paper tax return. If you file your income tax return electronically (e-file), you should receive your refund in less than three weeks. It can even be faster if you opt for a direct deposit. This is counted from the date the IRS receives your tax return.
Depending on how you file your tax return and how you’ll receive your refund, the following table shows an estimated tax refund schedule:
|Filing Method||How You’ll Receive the Refund||When to Expect the Refund|
|e-file||Direct deposit||1-3 weeks from filing date|
|e-file||Paper check in the mail||3 weeks or longer from filing date|
|Mailed paper tax return||Direct deposit||1 month or longer from when IRS receives your tax return|
|Mailed paper tax return||Paper check in the mail||2 months or longer from when IRS received your tax return|
Tax preparation is a booming industry. As you’ve observed, tax forms put out by the government are complicated. It is often easier for some people to get assistance from a tax professional who can help file their taxes more efficiently. If you don’t want to go to a professional to do it, you can at least use tax preparation software that helps cut down on some of the workload.
Tax professionals are available at outlets such as H&R Block, Jackson Hewitt, Liberty Tax, and many others. Some of those places are open all year long to assist you with your tax concerns, even when it’s not tax season. You can call or schedule an appointment whenever it’s most convenient.
Common Tax Software Programs
Some popular tax software products are TurboTax, TaxAct, and H&R Block At Home. These are all great software programs that can walk you through the process to ensure your taxes are paid. Using these products will still require some of your time and attention, since you need to fill in all the necessary tax information into the computer program.
That being said, it is still a lot quicker than filing taxes traditionally with pencil and paper. Software programs prepare and electronically file tax returns from any computer or mobile device with internet access. The old method would still require you to mail your tax return, which adds more time to the process.
It is our sole duty as citizens to pay federal income taxes each year. To ensure we pay our fair share, the IRS requires us to file an annual tax return. This details how much income we’ve earned in a year, how much tax we’re supposed to pay, along with how much we actually paid. Take note of tax credits and deductions for 2021, as you might be eligible for certain tax benefits under employment, medical, or child care benefits according to the American Rescue Plan Act.
When you fill out tax paperwork with your employer, it determines your tax filing status. You also have the option to include a dependent, especially if you have a child. You can either be single, married filing separately, married filing jointly, the head of a household, or a qualified widow(er). Your tax filing status, along with your assigned tax rate, will determine the amount of tax you need to pay.
Individual taxpayers are all allowed by the government to make certain deductions on their income. The primary deduction you make is called the standard deduction. This amount is based on your tax filing status, which is adjusted annually to account for inflation. Itemized deductions make the most sense if your total deduction surpasses the standard deduction amount. That said, it’s important to maximize the deductions you need to make the most out of your tax refund. You may also qualify for certain tax credits based on your income and filing status.
A tax deduction essentially lowers your taxable income. A lower income means you can receive a lower tax rate on your tax filing period. As a result, this increases your tax refund, which you can save or use for more important expenses. Taxes are normally filed every year from January until the 15th of April. In certain cases, you may have valid reasons for not submitting on time. When this happens, you can ask the IRS for an extension to file your taxes.
Remember, always seek professional tax advice if there is something you do not understand. The tax code is very difficult to comprehend at times, and asking for help is crucial. Doing research and getting assistance is a much better option than guessing or doing nothing at all to get your taxes in order.
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